书信

  英文书信与中文书信在格式上差异很大。英文书信通常由六个部分组成,它们是信头( heading )、信内地址( inside address )、称呼( salutation )、信的正文( body of letter )、结束语( complementary close )、签名( signature )。
  一、书信格式
  1 .信头。指发信人的地址和日期。从信纸的上端中央往右写。第一行写单位名称,第二行写门牌号和路名,第三行写市名、省名、国名,第四行写发信日期。学生写信时第一行写班级名称,第二行写系科名称,第三行写学校名称,第四行写市、省名称,第五行写国家名称,第六行写发信日期。如果是国内信件,国名可以不写。要特别注意英文地址写法顺序是从小单位到大单位。日期的写法有美英之分。英国的写法是:日,月,年,如 10th of October , 2002 .美国的写法是:月,日,年,如 October 10 , 2002 .例如:
  Xiangyang Middle School (向阳中学)
  No . 120 , Xinhua Road (新华路 120 号)
  Cangzhou , Hebei Province 061001 (沧州市河北省 061001 )
  P . R . of China (中华人民共和国)
  October 20 , 2002 ( 2002 年 10 月 20 日)
  2 .信内地址。指收信人的姓名和地址。低于信头 1 — 2 行,从左边开始写。第一行写姓名、头衔,第二行写单位名称,第三行写门牌号及路名,第四行写市、省名称,第五行写国名。写往学校的信,第一行写姓名、头衔,第二行写系科名称,第三行写学校名称,第四行写市名、省名及邮政编码,第五行写国名。商业往来信件及公函必须写信头和信内地址。亲友、熟人之间的信可以不写信内地址,信头处写发信日期就行了。它与信封上收信人姓名、地址完全一样。
  3 .称呼。就是对收信人的称呼。信内地址下隔一、二行写称呼,其左侧与信内地址第一行对齐,称呼后面一般用逗号,但正式函件称呼后多用冒号。对不相识的男子,单数常用 Sir , Dear Sir ,或 My Dear Sir ;复数常用 Dear Sirs 或 Gentlemen .对不相识的女子,单数常用 Madam , Dear Madam ,或 My Dear Madam ;复数常用 Madams 或 My Dear Madams .对比较熟识的男子,普通称 Dear Mr .。。即可。对比较熟识的女性,普通称 Dear Mrs (或 Miss )。。。即可。
  4 .正文。是书信的主要部分,一般从称呼下方隔一至两行处开始写正文。每段的第一个字母一般要缩进 3 — 5 个字母的空格。正文的内容要表达清楚,语言要简单明了,态度要诚恳礼貌。如果信中涉及的事情不多,可以一段到底,如果要讲的事情多,则可以分成几段,段与段之间常隔 1 — 2 行。
  5 .结束语。是写信人对收信人的谦称,写在正文的下面 2 — 3 行处,从信纸中央偏右的地方写起,一般用 Yours (第一个字母大写)。若是亲戚(包括家人),可以写 Your loving son / sister / brother / daughter 等之类的表达法,若是对朋友,可以写 Your friend ;若是对老师,可以写 Your student .
  6 .签名。一般写在结束语之下。
  二、信封
  英文信封的写法与汉语不同。收信人的姓名及地址应写在信封中下部,且先写姓名后写地址。寄信人的姓名及地址应写在信封的左上角,若是普通书信,也可写在信封背面。邮票贴在信封的右上角。在信封上常见的附加说明有“ Urgent (急件), Express (快件), Registered ( Regd )(挂号信), Air mail (航空信)等”,要根据实际情况选用。下面是信封的格式:
  ( 2002 河北省)根据提示和要求完成下面短文。
  假如你( Li Lei )在去年夏令营认识的一个朋友 Jim 从英国给你寄来一件礼物—一件红色的衬衫,并附有一封信。在信中他向你问好,他想知道你近来在忙些什么。请你给他写一封回信( 100 个词左右)表示感谢。回信要包括以下内容:
  ①向 Jim 问好并对他表示感谢。
  ②礼物是你最喜欢的颜色,尺寸很合适,你非常喜欢。
  ③告诉 Jim 你近来很好,上周刚过完生日,生日聚会很热闹。询问 Jim 的近况,并表示希望他能来中国。
  注意:①信的格式已经给出。②信中不得使用真实的人名、地名。
  65Zhonghua Street
  Shijiazhuang 050000
  Hebei , China
  June 21st , 2002
  Dear Jim ,
   How are you ? _________________________________
  _____________________________________________________
  _____________________________________________________
  _____________________________________________________
  _____________________________________________________
  Your friend,
  Li Lei
参考例文:
  65Zhonghua Street
  Shijiazhuang 050000
  Hebei , China
  June 21st , 2002
  Dear Jim ,
  How are you ? Many thanks for the shirt ! I'm very happy to hear from you again .
   I love the shirt very much , Jim . And red is my favourite colour ! You remembered ! It's just my size . Every time I wear it , I will think of you .
I'm fine here in China . Last week , I had a birthday party . Many ofmy classmates came and my mother made us a lot of good food . We really had a wonderful time together . How are you doing in England , Jim ? I miss you very much . I always miss the days we were together last summer . I hope you can come to China some day .
  Please write back soon.
   Your friend,
  LiLei
  2. 书信的种类
  1) 邀请信
  邀请信有正式和非正式之分,也有介于两者之间者。正式邀请信一般属于公函类,私人邀请信一般属于非正式文体。邀请朋友、熟人参加某一聚会时,再词句上不一定多加斟酌,用词太正规倒显得关系不密切。但是如果与被邀请人不太熟悉的话,最好用正式文体。如虽认识但并不十分了解,文体可介于两个者之间。由此可见,私人邀请究竟用什么文体,关键看与被邀请人之间的亲疏的程度。邀请信要明确写出活动(是晚会、晚餐还是一般的聚会等)、活动的时间地点组织这项活动的理由,有时还应告诉对方可能出席的人,另外一般希望对方给予答复。
  (1) 非正式邀请信,如;
26 Coventry St.
London
Sept. 15th, 1999.
Dear Jack,
  I am going to the cinema to see the Red River Valley and I have two tickets. Would you like to come? The film starts at 7:30 p.m. Maybe we can meet at the Covent Garden Station at 7:00 p.m. and have a drink before the film starts. Please phone me at home to let me know.
Looking forward to seeing you.
Love
Mary
  这封信是写给朋友的,所以用语比较随便,比较口语化。
  (2) 正式邀请信,如:
Dear Ms. Gupta;
  It’s our great pleasure to announce that Jan. 19th is the 3rd anniversary of the founding of our corporation. We have a small party as follows: 7:00p.m.,Jan. 19th, Room No.123, Kunlun Hotel. At this moment, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to our clients for both courtesy and support over the past three years. Please confirm if you plant to attend.
Yours Sincerely,
Lewis
  这是一封正式邀请信,十分正规,无论从句式,还是用语都十分讲究。
  (3) 介于正式和非正式之间的邀请信,如:
No.4 Middle School
Beijing 100034
April 29th,2000
Dear Miss Katherine,
  I am very pleased to write to you. My name is Yu Hong and I am monitor of Class One, Grade Three of the No.2 Middle School of Ji'nan. Last year, you came here to give a speech, which was "Fast Reading". My classmates and I all thank you very much. We will have an English evening at 7:00--9:00 on the evening of May 4th in our classroom. Would you please come and attend the evening party? At the party, we will sing English songs, play games and so on. And we are anxious to invite you to come to sing us an English song. After that we can enjoy the music. We hope to see you soon.
Yours
Yu Hong
  这封信是写给一位外籍教师的,这位外籍教师曾经到过这所学校,虽然作者认识,但并不十分了解。
  2)感谢信
  感谢信可分为感谢馈赠、感谢款待、感谢帮助、感谢送行和感谢探病等。
  感谢信一般包括以下几点:
  ①对收信人的称谓;
  ②写信的目的;(Thank you for…)
  ③致谢并详述所收到的礼物或得到的帮助等;
  ④结尾及谦称。
  如:
Dear Ms. Gupta:
  How regretful I must leave you house. Thank you for the many good things you provided. The chess game, tennis match and Mr. Gupta's delicious dishes gave me lots of enjoyment. If you came to Beijing for any reason, please come to my family. The kids are looking forward to seeing Aunt Jean. I believe we will have a very happy time.
  Yours Sincerely,
   Lewis
  3)求职信
  求职信属于公务信函,格式和用词比较规。信的内容大体上分为三部分
  ①写信的目的,
  ②自我介绍,
  ③要求。
  注意下面几点:
  ①写信的目的要直截了当地在信的开头提出。
  ②自我介绍部分主要介绍自己的学历、工作经历、解决问题的能力等等。在行文、用词上要表现出自信、恳切的态度,语言简明扼要,突出介绍自己的优点,与众不同的特长或有利条件。还要紧扣用人单位的需求,巧用词语,有国地说服对方,此职非你莫属。
  ③最后提出进一步联系的途径,如:时间、地点。还可以主动提出接受面试或考核等。
  ④求职信在写作特点上主要用第一人称以及动词的一般现在时。如:
Ms Li Ling
P.O.Box 231
Beijing
July 10,1999
Dear sir(s),
  I have just read in the newspaper that a secretary of the English language in wanted in your company. I am therefore writing to you to introduce myself. I'd like to get the job. I am a girl college student of 22 years old. My name is Li Ling. I am studying in the language department. I can speak, read and write English very well. As a second language, I can read and speak a little French. I have some work experience as a typist in my spare time at school, and as a tourist guide during summer holidays. The bosses I worked for were all satisfied with my work. I am sure I'll satisfy you as well. You can get more information about my studies and work from the college. I am looking forward to visiting your office at any time for a talk or a test.
  Faithfully
  Li Ling
  4)回信
  写回信时应特别注意正确理解写信人的意图、所提问题、必须对写信人的问题给予明确的答复。如下例:
No.1 Middle School of Nanjing,
Jiangsu, China
Jan.23rd, 2000
Dear Jack
  Thanks for your letter. Yes, I have some difficulty in learning English. For example, I can't tell the difference between written English and spoken English. Sometimes I often make mistakes while speaking to others. I want to improve my spoken English. But I don't know how. Would you please give me some advice? As you say, it is really difficult to write toe Chinese characters, but don't worry about it. Have you considered doing plenty of practice? And I suggest you write them as much as possible. I think it will be of great help. I'm looking forward to hearing from you again.
  Best wishes.
  Yours
  Li Ling
  原信中作者问到英语学习的情况,同时征求学习汉语的建议并谈到自己在学习汉语的过程中遇到的问题。回信中作者对来信中的问题作了详细的回答并给出了建设性的建议。

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